The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) has been on the forefront of dynamic runtime technology powering Java to new levels. From handheld devices to high performance servers, Java and the JVM continue to provide a high performance, portable platform for application development for now and for years to come. This talk will give an overview of the JVM design and architecture, details on the code optimization capability of our runtime compilers (i.e. JIT), and related performance characteristics of modern microprocessors. I'll also discuss past experiences working with hardware and software development teams from Intel, AMD, and Sun and the role of performance analysis and optimization in delivering high performance systems.